Site of cancer

Primary site of the cancer is frequently identified as a risk factor for VTE. Pancreas, uterus, lung, stomach, kidney, and primary brain tumours associated with an increased risk of VTE. This suggests cancer-specific mechanisms playing a role in CAT.

  • Pancreatic cancer was associated with highest risk of VTE (14.6 per 100 person-years), followed by brain (12.1 per 100 person-years)1
Stage of cancer

Risk of VTE occurrence is higher in patients with advanced-stage than in localized cancer

  • In a Danish population based cohort study, calculated adjusted relative risks for stage I, II, III, and IV cancer were 2.9, 2.9, 7.5, and 17.1, respectively
  • In another study, patients with distant metastases are at a greater risk of VTE compared with those without distant metastases.
Histology of cancer

Histological subtypes of some types of cancer are strongly associated with increased risk of VTE 

  • 2-fold increased risk of VTE with high-grade tumours (G3 and 4) compared with low-grade tumours (G1 and 2) (HR: 2.0, [95 % CI: 1.1–3.5]; p = 0.015)2
  • Adenocarcinoma type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was associated with increased risk of VTE compared to squamous cell carcinoma.3
  • Some studies have shown mucin-producing adenocarcinomas (pancreas, lung, and GI) have the highest incidence of CAT.3
Time after diagnosis

Initial period following a cancer diagnosis is linked to a higher risk of VTE

  • Some studies suggest that the incidence of VTE events was higher within the first 3-6 months following diagnosis of cancer whereas others suggest within the first year.


HR=hazard ratio; CI=confidence interval; P=p-value.

  1. Kimpton M et al. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2019 Dec 6;2019(1):158-166
  2. Ahlbrecht J, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Nov 1;30(31):3870-5
  3. Abdol Razak NB et al. Cancers. 2018, 10, 380.

MAT-GB-2000453 (v5.0) Date of preparation: March 2022