1. Rosendaal FR. Venous thrombosis: a multicausal disease. Lancet. 1999; 353:1167–73
  2. Wong P, Baglin T. Epidemiology, risk factors and sequelae of venous thromboembolism. Phlebology. 2012;27 Suppl 2:2–11.
  3. Heit JA, O'Fallon WM, Petterson TM, et al. Relative impact of risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162:1245–8.
  4. Oger E. Incidence of venous thromboembolism: a community-based study in Western France. EPI-GETBP Study Group. Groupe d'Etude de la Thrombose de Bretagne Occidentale. Thromb Haemost. 2000 83:657–60.
  5. Nordström M, Lindblad B, Bergqvist D, Kjellström T. A prospective study of the incidence of deep-vein thrombosis within a defined urban population. J Intern Med. 1992 232:155–60.
  6. Silverstein MD, Heit JA, Mohr DN, Petterson TM, et al. Trends in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a 25-year population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158:585–93.
  7. Heit JA, Silverstein MD, Mohr DN, Petterson TM, et al. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in the community. Thromb Haemost. 2001 86:452–63.
  8. Geerts WH, Bergqvist D, Pineo GF, Heit JA et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest. 2008; 133(6 Suppl):381S-453S
  9. Kahn SR, Ginsberg JS. Relationship between deep venous thrombosis and the postthrombotic syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:17-26.
  10. Kahn SR. The Post-Thrombotic Syndrome. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2010; 2010:216-20. doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2010.1.216.
  11. van Dongen CJ, Prandoni P, Frulla M, Marchiori A, et al. Relation between quality of anticoagulant treatment and the development of the postthrombotic syndrome. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3:939-42.
  12. Prandoni P. Healthcare burden associated with the post-thrombotic syndrome and potential impact of the new oral anticoagulants. Eur J Haematol. 2012;88:185-94.
  13. Goldhaber SZ and Bounameaux H. Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Lancet 2012; 379: 1835–46
  14. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Venous thromboembolic diseases: the management of venous thromboembolic diseases and the role of thrombophilia testing. Costing report. 2012
  15. Goldhaber SZ, Visani L, De Rosa M. Acute pulmonary embolism: clinical outcomes in the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry (ICOPER). Lancet. 1999; 353:1386 –1389.
  16. Piazza G and Goldhaber S. Management of Submassive Pulmonary Embolism. Circulation. 2010;122:1124–1129.
  17. Piazza G, Goldhaber SZ. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2011; 364:351–60.
  18. Gomez K, Tuddenham EDG, McVey JH. Normal haemostasis. In Postgraduate Haematology, Sixth Edition Edited by A V. Hoffbrand, D. Catovsky, E. G. D. Tuddenham, A. R. Green © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Chapter 29: 746–71
  19. Jerjes-Sanchez C. Venous and arterial thrombosis: a continuous spectrum of the same disease? Eur Heart J. 2005; 26:3-4
  20. Patel K. Deep Venous Thrombosis. MEDSCAPE 2014
  21. Kahn S. The post thrombotic syndrome. Thromb Res 2011; 127 Suppl. 3:S89–S92
  22. Toshner M, Pepke-Zaba J. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: time for research in pathophysiology to catch up with developments in treatment. F1000Prime Rep. 2014; 6:38. doi: 10.12703/P6-38. eCollection 2014.
  23. Mackman N. Triggers, targets and treatments for thrombosis. Nature. 2008 451:914–8.
  24. Weitz JI1, Gross PL. New oral anticoagulants: which one should my patient use? Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2012;2012:536-40. doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2012.1.536.
  25. Roberts LN, Porter G, Barker RD, Yorke R, et al. Comprehensive VTE prevention program incorporating mandatory risk assessment reduces the incidence of hospital-associated thrombosis. Chest. 2013; 144:1276–81.
  26. Catterick D and Hunt BJ. Impact of the national venous thromboembolism risk assessment tool in secondary care in England: retrospective population-based database study. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2014 25:571–6.
  27. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Venous thromboembolism in over 16s: reducing the risk of hospital-acquired deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. 2019. NICE clinical guideline 89. Available at
  28. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Venous thromboembolism prevention quality standard. 2010 NICE quality standard 3. Available at
  29. Samama M, Cohen AT, Darmon JY, et al. Comparison of enoxaparin with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:793-800.
  30. Leizorovicz A, Cohen AT, Turpie AGG, et al. Randomized, placebo controlled trial of dalteparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. Circulation 2004; 110:874–9.
  31. Cohen AT, Davidson BL, Gallus AS, et al. Efficacy and safety of fondaparinux for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in older acute medical patients: randomized placebo controlled trial. Br Med J 2006; 332:325–9.
  32. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Reducing the risk of thrombosis and embolism during pregnancy and the puerperium. Available at
  33. Barritt DW, Jordan SC. Anticoagulant drugs in the treatment of pulmonary embolism: a controlled trial. Lancet. 1960;1(7138):1309–1312.
  34. Wells PS, Forgie MA, Rodger MA. Treatment of venous thromboembolism. JAMA. 2014; 311:717–28.
  35. Nieto JA, Solano R, Ruiz-Ribó MD, et al; Riete Investigators. Fatal bleeding in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism: findings from the RIETE registry. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8(6):1216–22.
  36. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Venous thromboembolic diseases: diagnosis, management and thrombophilia testing. 2020. NICE clinical guidance 158. Available at
  37. Xarelto® Summary of Product Characteristics.
  38. Eliquis® Summary of Product Characteristics.
  39. Pradaxa® Summary of Product Characteristics.
  40. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Rivaroxaban for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and prevention of recurrent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. 2012. NICE technology appraisal guidance 261. Available at
  41. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Rivaroxaban for treating pulmonary embolism and preventing recurrent venous thromboembolism. 2013. NICE technology appraisal guidance 287. Available at
  42. Enden T, Haig Y, Kløw NE, et al; CaVenT Study Group. Long-term outcome after additional catheter-directed thrombolysis vs standard treatment for acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (the CaVenT study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012; 379:31-38.
  43. Othieno R, Abu Affan M, Okpo E. Home vs in-patient treatment for deep vein thrombosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;3(3):CD003076.
  44. Squizzato A, Donadini MP, Galli L, Dentali F, Aujesky D, Ageno W. Prognostic clinical prediction rules to identify a low-risk pulmonary embolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2012; 10:1276–90.
  45. Carter NJ, McCormack PL, Plosker GL. Enoxaparin: a review of its use in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Drugs 2008; 68:691–710.
  46. Clexane Summary of Product Characteristics.
  47. Merli GJ, Groce JB. Pharmacological and clinical differences between low-molecular-weight heparins. P&T 2010; 35: 95–105.
  48. Linhardt RJ, Gunay NS. Semin Thromb Hemost 1999; 25(suppl 3):5–16.
  49. Mitton BA. Antithrombin deficiency. MEDSCAPE 2014.
  50. The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry. Biological and biosimilar medicines in the UK. July 2014.
  51. What is a Biosimilar Medicine? May 2019. NHS England Medical Directorate.
  52. Scottish Medicines Consortium. Biosimilar medicines. May 2015.
  53. NICE National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). 2014; British National Formulary – General guidance. Available at: Date accessed: June 2020.
  54. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. KTT15: Biosimilar medicines. February 2016 (Updated February 2018).
  55. Specialist Pharmacy Service. Which medicines should be considered for brand-name prescribing in primary care?
  56. All Wales Medicines Strategy Group. National Prescribing Indicators 2017-2018. February 2017.
  57. GOV.UK. Biosimilar products. Available at: Last accessed: June 2020.
  58. NHS Biosimilar commissioning framework. September 2017. Medicines, Diagnostics and Personalised Medicine Policy Team, National Medical Directorate, NHS England.
  59. Sanofi Data on File. Enoxaparin Brand Written Share Jan 2018 – Jan 2019. SAGB.ENO.19.04.0766.
  60. Haig Y, Enden T, Grøtta O, et al; CaVenT Study Group. Post-thrombotic syndrome after catheter-directed thrombolysis for deep vein thrombosis (CaVenT): 5-year follow-up results of an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Haematol 2016; 3: e64–71 published online
  61. Vedantham S, Goldhaber SZ, Julian JA, et al; Pharmacomechanical Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Deep-Vein Thrombosis. N Engl J Med 2017;377:2240-52.

Prescribing Information

Adverse Event Reporting

MAT-GB-2000453 (v3.0) October 2021